The dying profession: Tex's harness maker.

Column:Industry dynamic Time:2018-02-07
Tex -- the site of the ancient "tianma", the "heavenly horse", is located in the western part of the north slope of tianshan mountain, the northern foot of the hark mountain

Tex -- the site of the ancient "tianma", the "heavenly horse", is located in the western part of the north slope of tianshan mountain, the northern foot of the hark mountain, the southern foot of the wusun mountain, and the Tex valley basin. According to the history of ancient Chinese literature "shiji" hanshu "tang book" wei book records, such as the beginning of the 2nd century BC, the black sun one by westward ili in xinjiang, gansu occupies the most fertile tekes river basin natural grasslands, breeding for more than five hundred years, set up was the first big western Ukraine - Sun Guo. The uzbek people are the main source of the kazakh people today, and "wu sun" means "unity and unity" in kazakh. Tex is the ancient Chinese princess marry the most recorded time (han dynasty melancholy, fine gentleman two princess married wu Sun Guo), also is the ancient Chinese's largest racetrack, "king of the prairie" kara topped the location of the prairie and nomads to establish "teeth" in ancient China the most.

One important feature of usun culture is the horse culture. He also called "heavenly horse" and "west pole horse". Tex is located in the tianshan precipitation abundant area, the water grass is rich and beautiful, the climate is warm and cold, so from the ancient horse. According to the historians, in 104 BC, the king of wu proposed to the western han dynasty when he presented the emperor with a thousand horses, which was selected from the horse race at the time.

As an important carrier of horse culture, the production of harness has spawned the ancient profession of "harness maker". When riding with tools or objects always called harnesses, these objects with the stirrup, the chain of the stirrup, back Qiu, Ma Du, Ma Du chain, saddle pad belt, buckle, khan cushion, bit and bridle, bridle, Ma Sheng, saddle pad, saddle horse is single, condom after rope, saddle and horse leg cuffed and so on.

The handicraftsmen are divided into: silversmiths, saddles, cobblers, etc. The manufacture and modification of harness are divided into two types, male and female. Men's horse harness is often used in daily life, war, competition, weddings and funerals, and needs to be made solid, atmospheric and applicable. For example, the saddle head, stirrup chain and horse belt play a very important role in the competition, so it is very important for the selection of the harness. It is a shame for the saddler if the saddle is broken in the wrestling. Women's horses are mainly used for weddings, migrations, festivals, making and decorations are special. Saddles are specially decorated, and naan is characterized by its characteristics. In the past, it was used to make horse harness for women. As a dowry, sometimes the production methods of female horses were also unique. For example, the stirrups are more generous, and the stirrups and stirrup chains are specially decorated with silver.

The tailor makes the man. Of all the harness, saddles are the most important equestrian products, and also the most revealing of the owner's status, status and hobbies. A good saddle is itself a fine art. Kazakhs pay special attention to saddle. No matter what kind of harness, it is full of the decorative pattern with beautiful lines and bright colors. A pattern made of silver spikes or copper spikes that sparkle and sparkle, and are firm and durable.

Ahartai adli makes silver nails.

To make a complete harness, the blacksmith makes stirrups, chews, buckles, etc., and is decorated by the silversmith to achieve a beautiful effect. Saddle maker after making all kinds of saddles, leather and weaver Qiu, horse after headstall, chest belt, Ma Du belt production, capable women making horse pad appliance, such as harness of decoration materials are generally called naan ACTS the role of silver, copper, stone, or gold. Flowers, nails, and so on are made of silver or carved out of silver. In this way, through weaving, called naan act the role of the harness methods such as metal production, the whole production process fine, complex, rigorous, sometimes a plate of the finest harnesses need several months or even years to complete. As the horse gradually fades out of the civil arena, fewer and fewer craftsmen are engaged in the production of horses, and this craftsmanship is facing a quandary.

At the age of 60, ahartai adli, 60, of totikule village, zierwuzek, Tex., has been studying with his father for more than 40 years since he was a child.

His father, adli, was a famous silversmith, and his grandfather was also known as a master silversmith. The name of the father of ahmet adli is now known to the 70-year-old kazakh old man in Tex. He was the first man to make the horse. His father made horses that were refined, durable, and patterned, and they were actually more like crafts. Not only that, but the father would also do all kinds of kazak accessories and costumes, from earrings to the rings on the skirts, from necklaces to little pieces of metal on the caps, and they were beautifully done.

In a large, open courtyard in the village of totikule, a stout apple tree was a row of shabby houses. Open the door: a yellow incandescent light bulb, a traditional, old, bulky stove, an antiquated chair covered with animal skins, and all kinds of half-finished horses covered with walls... This is the carpenter's workshop and studio.

In recent years, the popularity and attraction of the pearl gossip city of grassland have been further expanded at home and abroad, and the advantages of tourism resources have brought a significant change to the life of the masons. Now, his three younger brothers were influenced by him, and they opened a shop in the town of Tex, where they worked on their own harness and processed gold and silver jewelry. Most of his works are bought by people who come to him, and some of them are sold in his brother's shop. Some pastoralists also make a beautiful costume ornament or a harness for a dowry.

Aha, too adebayor, force is the seventh generation of the family of kazak harness production techniques representative inheritance, he made handicrafts, boutique is numerous, part of the harness product was elected to foreign markets to participate in the expo. His apprentice, successively develop 12 now have five apprentice, in June 2011 by the yili prefecture people's government, the yili prefecture culture sports bureau awarded the yili prefecture ZhouZhi level intangible cultural heritage representative inheritance, kazak harness production techniques to make face lost, disappearing folk intangible cultural heritage.

Now, ahartai adli has been working on a collection of horse tools, on the one hand, teaching his son to make harness. The three clever little granddaughters often stayed with him in the workshop, and they were very careful with the meticulous and precise craftsmanship of the masons. (wen/huang jiangyong/wind horse)